Registered Dietitian, Board Certified in Sports Nutrition, Food Scientist

Fruits & Vegetables – Do benefits outweigh any risks?

Consumption of fruits and vegetables by Americans is not quite two cups per day, which, depending upon caloric needs falls short of the recommended four to five cups per day. A recent scientific review published in the European Journal of Nutrition found considerable evidence indicating the preventive nature fruits and vegetables provide on a number of chronic diseases. In fact, there is convincing evidence that increasing the consumption of fruit can reduce the risk of high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke.

Many people question the best form of fruit or vegetables for consumption. The answer to this depends on your preference. No matter the form ‑ fresh, canned, frozen, or dried ‑ the benefits of essential nutrients and phytochemicals are being provided. Many of those forms, in general, provide similar amounts of fiber and minerals. Also keep in mind when processing fruits and vegetables, the fat-soluble nutrients, such as vitamins A and E, can actually increase and allow for better absorption by the body. In addition, commercial production of fruits and vegetables, such as canned or frozen, allows for optimum preservation of nutritional value since it is produced within a few hours of harvest.

There also are questions around whether conventional or organic fruits and vegetables are nutritionally better for you. Based on current scientific evidence, such as an analysis of 46 studies published by the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2009, there is no evidence to indicate that organically produced items are significantly different or superior in nutritional quality relative to conventional. In general, all fruits and vegetables ‑ whether conventional or organic ‑ provide key nutrients and should be incorporated into the diet. Another frequently asked question concerns the presence of pesticide residue on conventionally grown fruits and vegetables, often referred to as the “Dirty Dozen.” For science based, factual information, is a valuable resource provided by the Alliance for Food and Farming that provides answers to questions on this topic. The bottom line is there is no convincing evidence that pesticide residue at the levels found on fruits and vegetables pose a risk. Just be sure to wash the produce before consumption. The benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables far outweigh any risks.

For more information and recipes on fruits and vegetables, visit or